30% of the samples could be synchronised and dated accurately.

Applying the classic methods of dendrochronological dating, a 94- year STW chronology was constructed, spanning the years of 1920-2013.

computer assisted quality control in tree ring dating and measurement-40

They did not have the benefit of cheap, off the shelf, mass produced batteries. Bronze is a relatively hard alloy of copper and tin, better suited for the purpose than the much softer copper enabling improved durability of the weapons and the ability to hold a cutting edge.

For many years the telegraph, and later the telephone, industries were the only consumers of batteries in modest volumes and it wasn't until the twentieth century that new applications created the demand that made the battery a commodity item. The use of bronze for tools and weapons gradually spread to the rest of the World until it was eventually superceded by the much harder iron.

The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery.

Pioneers It is often overlooked that throughout the nineteenth century, most of the electrical experimenters, inventors and engineers who made these advances possible had to make their own batteries before they could start their investigations. the World was starting to emerge from the Stone Age. C., Mesopotamians (from modern day Iraq), who had already been active for hundreds of years in primitive metallurgy extracting metals such as copper from their ores, led the way into the Bronze Age when artisans in the cities of Ur and Babylon discovered the properties of bronze and began to use it in place of copper in the production of tools, weapons and armour.

This study was aimed at examining the relationships between the growth and climate for trees of the species Sorbus torminalis L.

growing in the Wielkopolska National Park and the Pniewy forest district (Wielkopolska).In your article about housework ("Germ warfare", 14 January), you said that after washing dishes we should "rinse with plenty of water, preferably hot". Wouldn't it save money if they were rinsed with the cold water that comes directly from the mains?Mosquito bites frequently induce a sharp sting in people and some animals, with severe evolutionary consequences for the mosquito when it gets swatted.Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind.Volta's pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications.Twenty composite site chronologies were analyzed, comprising about 3,000 trees from forested areas across the TP.